【托?!坑⒂鐨醋髦兇畛<?2個語法錯誤

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福彩3d和值走势图最近500 www.kjmfy.icu 英文學習中,語法學習比增加詞匯量要簡單得多。很多考生在學習了寫作框架,積累了一肚子詞匯與表達之后,還有可能栽倒在語法上。因為考官更在乎考生是否可以將觀點表達清楚,而不在乎考生能否羅列一堆復雜的近義詞。如果出現大量的語法錯誤或大量使用不當的單詞,那么在很大程度上會影響考官對考生試卷的印象,分數也會不理想。

 

托福語法學習主要有兩種途徑:一是識別常見語法錯誤,在寫作中加以避免;二是理解句子的成分和結構,從而寫出正確的句子?;諫锨Э忌醋?,諾諾總結了以下托福寫作中常見的常見語法錯誤,包括句子不完整、不一致、詞性誤用等等。并對其進行了簡要分析。托福寫作提升,從減少或杜絕各種錯誤開始。

 

1、不一致

所謂“不一致”,不僅指主謂不一致,它還包括了數的不一致(單復數問題)、時態不一致(時態混用)及代詞不一致(指代不明)等。大家不要認為這很簡單,其實寫作中犯錯的時候,可能自己還沒發現。

例:When one have money, he can do what he want to.

剖析:one是單數第三人稱,因而本句的have應改為has ;同理,want應改為wants。改為:When one has money, he can do what he wants to.

 

2、句子不完整

A. 一個簡單句有兩個基本成分:主語和謂語動詞,兩者缺一不可。

例:In China has more than 100 million subscribers to cable television. (錯誤,in china為介賓短語,不能充當主語。)

例:China has more than 100 million subscribers to cable television. (正確,中國有超過一億的有線電視用戶。)

 

如果句子中有從句,也要保證從句的完整性。

Eg. Those who overweight or indulge in unhealthy diets are candidates for heart attacks. (錯誤,overweight是形容詞,前面缺少一個系動詞。)

Those who are overweight or indulge in unhealthy diets are candidates for heart attacks. (正確,那些體重過重或者喜歡不健康飲食的人是心臟病的潛在患者。)

介詞后面一定要加名詞/代詞或者從句作賓語。

Eg. A marked character of cooperative learning is that personal success only springs from.(from是介詞,后面要加賓語)

A marked character of cooperative learning is that personal success only springs from team success.(正確,合作學習的一個顯著特征是個人的成功只能源于團隊成功)

一般情況下比較級后面要加than,并清晰指明對象。

Eg. Divorce is more common. (錯誤,缺少than及比較的對象)

Divorce is more common than it was one generation ago. (正確,現在,離婚現象比上一代要普遍)

 

3、句子成分多余

A. 一個簡單句通常只有一個主語,如果主語超過一個,要使用連詞構成并列主語

例:Smoking,drinking are banned in many places of work.(錯誤)

Smoking and drinking are banned in many places of work.(正確)

如果一個句子中出現多個謂語動詞,要使用連詞連接構成并列動詞,或者在一些句子中使用關系代詞構成復合句。有一些動詞后面可以跟動詞作賓語或者賓語補足語。

例:It is unclear recycling can help control pollution.

剖析:錯誤。出現iscan help兩個謂語動詞,根據句意它們之間需要加連接詞構成復合句。應改為:It is unclear whether recycling can help control pollution.

 

如果一個句子出現多個賓語,一般要使用連詞連接構成并列賓語。但是也有一些動詞,如give、offer等可以跟雙賓語。

例:More people would prefer cycling,walking if conditions were right.

剖析:錯誤。Cycling walking 都是賓語,應該用連詞。應改為:More people would prefer cycling or walking if conditions were right.

 

如果出現兩個句子,中間除了用加連詞這種方法之外,還可以用標點符號分割,比如用句號或者分號。句號和分號在語法上有連詞的功能,其前后要有完整的句子;而逗號、括號則不能夠連接完整的句子

例:Education has been made available to more people nowadays, however, many adults have some problems with literacy and numeracy.

剖析:錯誤,however 是副詞,不是連詞,其前后都是完整的句子,不能用逗號隔開。應改為:Education has been made available to more people nowadays; however, many adults have some problems with literacy and numeracy.(正確)

 

4、懸垂修飾語

所謂懸垂修飾語是指句首的短語與后面句子的邏輯關系。

1At the age of ten, my grandfather died.

剖析:這句中“at the age of ten”只點出十歲,但沒有說明“誰”是十歲。按一般推理不可能是my grandfather,如果我們把這個懸垂修飾語改明確一點,全句就不那么費解了。所以改為:When I was ten,my grandfather died。

 

2:To do well in college,good grades are essential.

剖析:句中不定式短語 to do well in college 的邏輯主語不清楚,應改為:To do well in college,a student needs good grades.

 

4、詞性誤用

“詞性誤用”常表現為介詞當動詞用;形容詞當副詞用;名詞當動詞用等。

1. None can negative the importance of money.

剖析:negative 是形容詞,誤作動詞。應該改為:None can deny the importance of money.

2.One possible solution is using the new energy to instead of the traditional energy.

剖析:Instead of是介詞,而這里構成to do(不定式),只能用動詞。因此,可改為:One possible solution is using the new energy to replace the traditional energy.

 

5、指代不清

指代不清主要講的是代詞與被指代的人或物關系不清,或者先后所用的代詞不一致。

例:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

剖析:讀完上面這一句話,讀者無法明確地判斷兩位姑娘中誰將結婚,誰將當伴娘。如果我們把易于引起誤解的代詞的所指對象加以明確,意思就一目了然了。這個句子可改為:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

 

6、不間斷句子

簡單來說,不間斷句子里容易出現的錯誤是同時出現不止一個動詞,造成原文表意混亂。

: There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

 

剖析:這個句子包含了兩層完整的意思:“There are many ways 以及“We get to know the outside world,簡單地把它們連在一起就不妥當了。應該改為:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

 

7、措詞毛病

考生們平時在措辭方面花的時間往往其有限,他們往往是根據漢語意思直譯。所以作文中用詞不當的錯誤比比皆是。

 

: The increasing use of chemical substances in agriculture also makes pollution.(農業方面化學物質使用的不斷增加也造成了污染。)

剖析:“the increasing use”不地道,應改為“abusive use (濫用)”。

 

8、累贅

言以簡潔為貴。寫句子沒有一個多余的詞;寫段落沒有一個無必要的句子。能用單詞的不用詞組;能用詞組的不用從句或句子。

例:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

剖析:本句的“the fact that he is lazy”是同謂語從句,我們按照上述“能用詞組的不用從句”的原則,可以改為:In spite of his laziness,I like him.

 

9、雙謂語錯句

例:For those under 26, there were 80% students study for career.

剖析:There be句型屬于雙謂語錯句高發句型,因為句中的be動詞已經是謂語,而句子后面的動詞通常是定語從句中的成分,故不能作為主句中的謂語。例句中同時出現了“were”和“study”,根據上面的分析,were應該是謂語,而study for career應該是定語從句,因此,例句應修正改成:

For those under 26, there were 80% students who studied for career. 或者For those under 26, there were 80% students studying for career.

 

10、主系表結構使用錯誤

例:We are impossible to make any progress without correcting the mistakes.

剖析:此句的主干結構是:we are impossible“我們是不可能”,表意不對。這種表達在英語中對應的句型是:It isforto…, 所以應該改成:

It is impossible for us to make any progress without correcting the mistakes.

 

11、情態動詞后的動詞原形和動名詞的使用出錯

例:Another equally vital point to be considered is that building them may costs much money and energy.

這種錯誤可能是筆誤,在托福作文中偶爾出現不至于扣分,但是通篇都是這樣的錯誤,那么肯定是有影響的。

例:Another point to be discussed is that more time spending on computers is harmful to childrens mental health.

“花更多時間在電腦上”這個動詞短語作為主語應該要用動名詞形式:

Another point to be discussed is that spending more time on computers is harmful to childrens mental health.

 

12、從句的誤用和濫用

例:The reason why I assert it is necessary for government to provide better education and health care for rural areas because it can ensure all citizens to have access to them.

whyrural areas”在句中作the reason的定語,固定句式“the reason whyis that…”why引導的定語從句和that引導的表語從句連用,氣勢磅礴,這就是所謂的高分句型。此題主句結構不完整,應該改為The reason why I assert it is necessary for government to provide better education and health care for rural areas is that it can ensure all citizens to have access to them.

 

以上就是托福寫作一些常見的語法錯誤小結,希望對大家的備考有幫助。世諾留學提供免費的托福作文精批,歡迎來電,0710-3317171,13396111169(顧問QQ181265991,微信:13871737083)。關注官方微信公眾號“世諾留學”、新浪微博“世諾留學”,每天獲取出國留學、英語學習干貨。

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